A Study on a System for Library Users to Search for Books in the Information Space and the Physical Space

Norihiko KATO
Dept. of Information Engineering,School of Engineering, Nagoya University


It may be common to search a collection-of-books database with books reference by the keyword etc., and not only the reference by the word but the reference by the natural language sentence may be possible. . Explanation of books, such as an author and table-of-contents information, and its book lend out to the reference result at the time, and, probably, the information about the physical position in a building called [ whether it is under かどうか and ] what No. bookshelf of what floor is also included in it by the case. However, it is intuitively unclear in which position of which shelf a book is actually only for such information. Moreover, since the book is carried out in fact even if the result other users of whose are books reference shows that a book is in a building when a certain user is going to return a book to a bookshelf immediately and has carried it out temporarily, the user cannot use the target book. Furthermore, there is no means to know that the book will be carried out at the time generally. In this research, the new books search engine even with consideration to physical access support of not only displaying the physical position of the purpose books in a bookshelf and the information retrieval result of the book [ say / presentation of a situation etc. / carry out and ] detected automatically but the purpose books is proposed paying attention to such a situation.

1 Introduction

1.1 BackGround and Purpose

Usually, in use of a library, a user moves even the bookshelf which has the books in order for the target books to come to hand, and where [ of the bookshelf ] the target books are and action of searching are taken. Generally, books are arranged for every genre and settled in the bookshelf which suited the genre in many cases at a library. However, where [ of a bookshelf ] the target books are cannot but search out of the book with which a user ranks with a bookshelf personally. Moreover, since books are not necessarily arranged exactly, the target books may not be found easily. It may be put on the bookshelf which differs from an original place by the case. In this research, the system which tells intelligibly for a user where [ of a bookshelf ] the target books are is proposed paying attention to there.

In addition, books for this paper to describe mean the books which a user is going to receive out of the result obtained by the books search engine etc. Naturally, in an actual library, it goes to a direct bookshelf, without using a books search engine, and there are some users who look for the purpose books. However, the essential theme of this research is integration in the information world and the physical world, if the book of a books search engine and an actual bookshelf is tied up and said. Therefore, in this research, it is not taking into consideration about the user who does not use a books search engine.

Moreover, in the library of present many, it is possible to search collection of books, using Web in to use an exclusive terminal たり in many cases. whether in addition to an author name, the date of issue, table-of-contents information, etc., in the reference result here, the present library owns the book, and under the present loan かどうか -- etc. -- it is displayed Moreover, it may be displayed by the case in which bookshelf books are. However, this display does not necessarily express the actual bookshelf situation correctly. It is, when having carried out temporarily, in order that it may be found whether it has set on the bookshelf in which books made a mistake or someone may read inside a hall by the case. In the present books search engine, it is because the bookshelf information on present cannot be included in a reference result on real time. In this research, it proposes also about the technique of linking such a present bookshelf situation with books reference.

1.2 The Feature of this Research, and Composition of Paper

In this research, the system which tells a user where [ of a bookshelf ] the target books are is proposed in case of use of a library. The robot for the place of books being shown in a bookshelf is attached, if demand of wanting to know the place of the target books from a user comes, a robot can move to the place of the books and the place of the books made into the purpose can be told.

Moreover, in this research, it proposes also about the technique of linking the present bookshelf situation with books reference. In response to operation which carries out books from a bookshelf or returns books, change of a bookshelf is acquired automatically. In the system created this time, in order to acquire change of a bookshelf situation, the camera was used, and we decided that it acts as the monitor of the picture of bookshelf this side. Since the user might carry out books from the bookshelf or it may have returned when change arose in the picture of bookshelf this side, it is automatic and a bookshelf situation is updated. It is enabled to thereby always hold the newest bookshelf situation.

Hereafter, Chapter 2 describes the books search engine which is needed by this research. Chapter 3 describes the robot for acquiring the position of the purpose books, and the technique of linking a bookshelf situation and books reference. Chapter 4 describes related research. Chapter 5 describes the conclusion of this research, and a future subject to the last.

2 Book Search System

The system with which the books in a laboratory are first searched as preparation of this research was created.

In this research, it is an important theme to connect information-reference of books to physical reference, and a books search engine can be called thing used as the foundation of the system proposed by this research. Therefore, the books search engine mounted by this research here is described.

2.1 System Outline

The collection-of-books search engine called on-line table search engine (Online Public Access Catalog:OPAC) to the library of present many can be used now. Usually, in the reference using OPAC, a list of the books which match a keyword with the books possessed by the library is displayed, using an author name, an issue date, etc. as a keyword. Moreover, when linked with the collection-of-books database of other libraries, it is. In this case, if a keyword is matched even if it is the books of other libraries, it will be displayed on a reference result.

In this research, a system like general OPAC and the system which performs books reference by the keyword similarly were built. However, in addition to usual books reference, the books search engine mounted this time is the system by which the operation about acquisition of the purpose books which are the themes of this research was applied.

Moreover, as a books database, they are not a general relational database but the class type database which saves data in XML form, and Xindice. It used. Generally, it is necessary to change a class into a table, and having used not the relational database used as a database but XML database needs to register it into books information, in order for there to be data divided by class like a table of contents and to treat it by the relational database. It is because it thought that the direction of Xindice which is XML database was suitable since a layered structure was registered as it is rather than it if it is XML.

However, in the present Xindice, there is a fault [ reference / data ] of being very late, compared with a relational database. Although it is thought that this problem is also improved in the future, it can be said that the reference speed of Xindice is not a practical use level at present. Therefore, PostgreSQL of a relational database is used in this system, and it is full-text search 行っている of bibliography information. This is a measure for coping with the lateness of the reference speed of Xindice to the last, and if the reference speed of Xindice can improve or the class type database with other quick reference speed can be used, the necessity of using a relational database will be lost in the future.

2.2 Registration of Books to Database

For books reference, a books database is needed first. Graphical User Interface (following, GUI) of exclusive use was prepared for database registration of books this time. The item inputted here can be written out as XML data, or can be registered now into Xindice. Moreover, since Xindice is used for reference of books as a database, in order to use by reference, the registration to Xindice is needed.

Figure. is the snapshot of GUI for database registration

Snapshot of database registration

Fugure1: Snapshot of database registration

The following items are manually inputted using this tool.

Among these, it is referred to as ID for specifying the book in the robot system which mentions ISBN number later.

In this registration system, renewal of registered books data is also performed using same GUI.

The information registered in the past can be called in inputting ISBN number of books to update, and the reorganization collection is possible. Moreover, since the bar code was surely describing for the latest books, it also considered using a bar code. The bar code scanner is attached in PC for books database registration, and the registration information on past calls similarly by reading the bar code of books now. If the books corresponding to the bar code are not registered into a database, only the bar code of a registration screen is filled in, and the remaining item will be in a new input state, while it has been blank.

2.3 Search Books

In this system, reference of books is performed from Web. Moreover, all operations that a user performs are performed from Web also including acquisition of the purpose books mentioned later. This is because it thought that the perusal function of Web contents is attached also to PDA or the cellular phone, it was using it, the necessity of installing application particularly because of use of a system was lost, and use of more men was attained recently.

Figure. is snapshot of book search. As general books reference besides the retrieval by keyword whose reference is possible from all the information on a database sees, reference has become possible from an author name, a books name, ISBN number, etc. here. Moreover, although the button of "being scan about a bookshelf" is displayed on the bottom of a screen, a robot runs by pushing this and the collection-of-books data of the book in the present bookshelf is generated. Chapter 3 describes this.

Snapshot of book search

Fugure2: Snapshot of book search

2.4 Display of Search Result

if the target books are found as a result of reference -- Figure. is a displayed The differences in the system created a general books search engine and this time are a "table-of-contents" button and a button "which looks for a book." If a table-of-contents button is pushed, the table-of-contents information registered into the database will carry out a tree display like the Explorer of Windows. Moreover, the robot of a bookshelf can run by pushing the button "which looks for a book", and the place of the purpose books can be known by it. Chapter 3 explains operation of a robot.

Snapshot of book search result

Fugure3: Snapshot of book search result

3 Guidance for Books

The system called [ where / of a bookshelf / the purpose books are this time and ] BookSpider as a system transmitted intelligibly for a user was created. Here, first, when BookSpider is constituted, the RF-ID tag system which is a big element is explained, and the system of BookSpider is described after that.

3.1 RF Tag for Books Attestation

In the system created this time, the un-contacting type IC tag (it is hereafter called RF tag) of RF-ID technology (Radio Frequency Identification:radio automatic discernment) is used. Moreover, various tag systems exist besides RF tag. Here, various tag technology is explained and the feature of RF tag system used for comparison of RF tag and other tag systems and the last this time is described.

3.1.1 Various Tag Technology

Now, there is a technique using the radio tag using the bar code, the resonance circuit, and IC tip as tag use technology for discriminating a thing also including RF tag. . Here, the system using those tags is explained.

  1. Bar code tag system

    Home electronics, food, books, etc. are attached to all things with the tag technology which is circulating most now. As the feature, since [ possible ] technology, it is raised by printing that introductory cost is cheap. Until now, with several bytes - some dozens of bytes, although it was very few, 2-dimensional bar codes, such as QR code, also appear recently, and the data size of data size which can be treated is increasing to about several kilobytes. However, there is a fault, like being [ to which rewriting of data is not made ] water, and become dirty and it is weak to breakage for the tag by printing. Moreover, since the leader which reads a bar code has strong directivity, he is said are inconvenient in respect of saying that a bar code must be set in the direction which a leader can read.

  2. Resonance circuit tag system

    The system which discriminates a tag using an electromagnetic wave. Passage of goods is supervised using the tag made in thin film-like LC resonance circuit by the existence of the echo wave by resonance with the electromagnetic wave sent from an antenna. As an example of use, it is used for security management of goods in the record store, the personal computer shop, etc. In this, a tag is stuck on goods, it is installing an antenna in an entrance, and when goods [ that the tag has attached the entrance ] pass, an alarm becomes. Although RF tag is resembled in that an electromagnetic wave is used, a resonance circuit tag is a circuit to the last, and the capability to be unable to perform reading and writing of data since IC tip etc. is not attached, and to discriminate individual goods fundamentally since [ that all tags are the same ] a circuit is low.

  3. Magnetic tag system

    A resonance circuit tag system and the system which discriminates a tag similarly using an electromagnetic wave. However, a tag is discriminated here by change of a magnetic field. As a tag, the thing of the shape of paper which stuck the metal line of the shape of a permanent magnet or a coil is used widely. There is much theft prevention in a library, a bookstore, etc. like [ the example of use of this system ] a resonance tag system. Especially, in this system, since a tag can be forged to a paper medium, there is the feature that it can use to make a tag look like the seal of a bar code etc. as the tag which is hard to notice. However, like a resonance circuit system, all tags are fundamentally the same and the capability to discriminate individual goods is low.

  4. RF tag system

    The system using the tag which contained IC tip which can be written by un-contacting. Although it is the system which discriminates using an electromagnetic wave, since direct data can be written in a tag unlike a resonance circuit tag, discernment of individual goods is attained. .

    Moreover, there is a formula which it has with the system without a battery in RF tag. By the type without a battery, the electromagnetic wave from reading equipment is received, it considers as a power supply using the energy, and the information which processes and has the received information is returned. While it is convenient, in order for there to be no possibility that a battery may be lost, and to send energy by the electromagnetic wave, there is also a fault that distance can seldom be taken. Although based on a type, several 10cm is called limit. Conversely, several meters, when it is necessary to get used and use it, the type containing a battery is used. Various existence of the storage capacity in containing a battery is recognized from several 10 bytes of small thing to several 10 K bytes of thing. There are also some which carry out complicated processings, such as encipherment, and powerful CPU is incorporated in that case. Although it is to the thing of sesame grain size in a small thing, if a certain amount of size is required for the antenna which delivers an electromagnetic wave and it is made not much small as whole, since the reading-and-writing distance of data will become short, the size of the IC itself is not made general so small.

    Moreover, each country establish a respectively original standard, the present RF tag is developed in many cases, and there is no standard unified now. Then, research and development and standardization are performed now for the purpose of the thing in which a MIT auto ID center has an individual identification number (ID) and for which a small radio IC tag is stuck on all products very much, reading and management are performed in each stage of circulation, and the efficiency of a physical distribution is increased by leaps and bounds. .

3.1.2 Advantage of RF Tag

In this system, the system which used RF tag was built out of the various above tag technology. In this system, since it is necessary to discriminate each of each books, neither a resonance circuit tag system nor a magnetic tag system is suitable. It hides and it will become impossible to read a bar code with the next book, when it puts on a bookshelf, if in the case of a bar code it cannot attach to a back cover if a book is thin but it attaches horizontally, although it will be called a bar code or RF tag when it becomes so. On the other hand, if it is RF tag and bending will also use the tag of the possible method of a film, it can attach even to the back cover of a thin book. Moreover, even if it attaches beside a book, it can read.

From the above thing, it was thought that use of RF tag was the the best for this system.